PBL as “an instructional strategy in which students work cooperatively over time to create a concrete, substantial product”
【参考】Galvan, M. E., & Coronado, J. M. (2014). Problem-based and project-based learning: Promoting differentiated instruction. National Teacher Education Journal, 7(4), 39-42.

PBL as an approach “that focuses on organizing self-learning in an empirical project” 
【参考】Tseng, K., Chang, C., Lou, S., & Chen, W. (2013). Attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in a project-based learning (PjBL) environment. International Journal of Technology & Design Education, 23(1), 87-102. doi:10.1007/s10798-011-9160-x

 “PBL can be defined as an extended learning process that uses inquiry and challenge to stimulate the growth and mastery of skills” 
【参考】Markham, T. (2012). Project based learning: Design and coaching guide. San Rafael, CA: HeartIQ Press.

PBLとは「生徒が、本物の、魅力的で複雑な質問 、問題、または課題に対して調査し、対応するために長期間取り組むことによって、知識とスキルを獲得する教育方法」
PBL as “a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging and complex question, problem, or challenge” 
【参考】Buck Institute for Education. (n.d.). What is Project Based Learning (PBL)? Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/about/what_pbl

Project based learning (PBL) has been defined as a teaching method where teachers guide students through a problem solving process which includes identifying a problem, developing a plan, testing the plan against reality, and reflecting on the plan while in the process of designing and completing a project.
【参考】Wurdinger, S. D., Haar, J., Hugg, B., & Bezon, J. (2007). A qualitative study using project based learning in a mainstream middle school. Improving Schools, 10, 150–61.

プロジェクト学習とは、実世界に関する解決すべき複雑な問題や問い、仮説を、プロジェクトとして解決・検証していく学習のことである。学生の自己主導型の学習デザイン、教師のファシリテーションのもと、問題や問い、仮説などの立て方、問題解決に関する思考力や協働学習等の能力や態度を身につける。【参考】溝上慎一・成田秀夫(編)(2016)『アクティブラーニングと PBL・探究的な学習(アクティブラーニング・シリーズ第 2 巻)』東信堂.